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We bring you the meaning, concept, in-depth Behaviour of Leadership. This article explains the Quality of modern leadership, what are differences between a leader and a manager, how a leader behaves in different situations. Based on psychological research papers. Give your try to read it and then adapt your leadership style.
As they say, leaders are not born; they are created, Create your leadership style by understanding different behavioural theories and studies.
Meaning, Definition, and Quality of Modern Leadership:
A leader is viewed as a person in the group who is capable of influencing group activities with regards to goal formation and goal accomplishment.
Paul Hersey (Author “Situational Leader”) and Leadership expert Ken Blanchard (Author “The one minute manager”) defined Leadership “the process of influencing group activities, towards the accomplishment of goals in the given situation.”
John Newstrom and Keith Davis defined leadership as “the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving the objectives.”
The leader may or may not have any formal authority. In this sense leadership is a broader term than management. Because management position comes with some degree of the formally designated authority, an individual may assume a leadership role as a result of the position he or she holds in the organization.
Quality of modern leadership
Leadership is a vital method of management. A leader doesn’t need to possess outstanding talents. Essentially leaders should be ready to take responsibility and should possess will and aspiration for further development. A good leader inspires us with his/her confidence and gives a strong example of what we should aim at.
#1. Good Personality: Good and Healthy Personality is an important quality of a leader. Most Good Leaders have a pleasing Personality.
#2. Appreciate Your co-workers: For a good leader, it is very important to motivate his follower. An effective leader always appreciates the hard work of the employees. If employees get appreciation, then they will continue doing the right thing.
#3. Innovate: Good Leader has the Quality or ability to innovate new things, methods in the organization. He should have the imagination to develop new ideas or new ways of handling the activities. Followers expect the leader to be innovative.
#4. Avoid Agreement: Good Leader avoids unnecessary agreements. If he criticized others, then he does not get involved in the argument. He listens to all the criticism politely. He gives his patient ear to know the things around and thinks about the problem, mistakes, and tries to solve them.
#5. Self Confidence: A leader must have self-confidence. By using his/her self-confidence, he/she can solve problems and face challenging situations.
#6. Listen to Others: A good leader should work towards being a part of the team rather than superior. If a leader listens to his followers, they will appreciate it. Sometimes leaders receive good ideas and suggestions from his followers.
#7. Human Skills: A good leader is one who can understand the follower’s human skills like perception, motivation, and attitude. The knowledge of social skills is essential for leaders as he/she has to interact with followers or team.
#8.Proper Judgment: He must showcase the ability to judge the performance of his subordinates. A good leader can take appropriate judgment in complex situations and can solve complex problems.
#9. Acceptance of his Mistakes: A good Leader is ready to accept his mistakes if he commits any error. People will appreciate a leader and look up to with more respect who can admit a mistake.
#10. Create a Participative and positive Surrounding: it is found that a good leader uses a participative approach and creates positive surrounding for the team. He always allows his Subordinate to participate in decision making.
William Edward Deming (Total Quality Management Thinker, Consultant whose theory helped for the recovery of Japan after the Second World War.) He famous for “Deming model of quality” his practices help to increase productivity and Quality at the workplace also elaborated characteristics of Modern Leadership:
- Absence of autocracy
- Does not need directives
- Listen to Employees
- Help Employees
- Trust Employees
- Help people to find a proper solution themselves
- Zeal to take responsibility
- Makes sure he/she is not the most competent
- Leader monitors the work of each team member and is in touch in case of some issue.
The significant difference between Leader and Manager
Leaders and Manager differ in Motivation, Personal History, and how they think & act.
- Managers majorly tend to adopt impersonal attitudes toward goals, and they work because of the necessity they need to perform. In contrast, Leaders take a personally active role to work towards the goal.
- Psychological Research has shown that 70 % of managers prefer to work with people they avoid alone activity because it makes them anxious. In other words, managers have co-workers, and leaders have followers.
- Managers are most likely to achieve results by directing the activities of their subordinates. Leaders inspire others to perform beyond their standard capabilities by creating a grand vision.
Importance of leadership: a good leader commits his followers the ways to achieve organizational goals; he also tries and pools in needed resources, guides, and push subordinates to reach the goals. Leaders Transform Potential into reality. Leaders help people and realize their dreams. While doing so, leaders aim to raise the level of human conduct and ethical aspiration for everyone.
Example: How Indian companies are nurturing leaders?
As the business environment changes rapidly, the organization needs leaders who are ideal with change. Leaders require to quickly assess situations, look at the new opportunity and put in place necessary strategies. “Organizations need people who are top of things, “says Rajeev Dubey president Human Resources Mahindra and Mahindra Ltd. The Mahindra group, for instance, offers several life cycle programmes for leadership development at the critical transition point for managers.
In 1999 the conglomerate set up a tremendous in-house management development centre “Bodhi Vriksha” which is named after the tree where Buddha attained enlightenment, to promote the business value and leadership skills. This program proved as “Leadership Toolkit” for the attendees.
Behavioural Theories of leadership: A behavioural theory of leadership focuses on the specific Behaviour that differentiates leaders from Non-leaders.
There are two main assumptions underlying leadership style and behavioural theories.
1) Leaders are made instead born
2) Successful leadership is based on definable and learnable Behaviour. This approach focuses on the Behaviour of successful leaders.
Three Dimensional Theories:
Kurt Lewin and colleagues carried out leadership experiments in 1939, identifying the three styles of leadership.
Autocratic leaders keep all the power with themselves. They make all the decisions themselves and structure the whole work situations for their employees. The employees are compelled to follow the leader instructions. Autocratic leaders are influential when there is no need for others contribution to decision making and where the motivation of people doesn’t get affected by the decision.
They decentralize the authority. They also give their subordinates considerable freedom in carrying out their duties and opportunities to participate in decision making. They motivate their subordinates to express their ideas and make suggestions. Democratic leadership increases employee satisfaction and feeling of self-worth. This style of leadership will not be effective if the employee lacks competent.
Laisses- fair leaders, do not set goals for the group, but the members have to set goals for the group. They allow people to make their own decision. This style is successful when people are capable and motivated to make their own decisions.
In addition to the three-dimensional theory of leadership style
This style of leadership is followed in the government departments. The bureaucrats strictly follow the principle even in the urgency they take decisions by formalities or rules. The relationship between superiors and subordinates are formal.
Sociocratic leaders believe that a good relationship is more important than productivity. They try to keep the employees happy, even at the cost of the organization. According to the leader, Subordinate’s need should be satisfied first.
Some studies about the Leadership style and Behaviour:
OHIO STATE STUDIES
It started in late 1940. These studies sought to identify the dimensions of leadership style and Behaviour with A) Initiating Structure- refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure of his or her role of the subordinates in the search for goal attainment. The leaders organize the group by himself, decide the goal for everyone, assign the task and expect workers to maintain definite standards of performance. And B) Consideration- refers to the extent to where leaders are likely to have a good relationship, mutual trust, and respect for subordinates. They show concern for their behaviour satisfaction. A leader high in consideration could be described as one who helps associates with personal problems, in a friendly approachable manner and treats all associates as equal.
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES
Employee oriented- one who gives importance to interpersonal relations. They always think about subordinates needs and problems.
Production oriented leaders- one who emphasizes on task accomplishment. They only think about production. They are associated with a lower level of job satisfaction.
I hope you did go through all the information above, Sit back and trace your own leadership skills and answer.