Things to read
Job isn’t just a Job, It’s Who you Are.
EMPLOYEE SELECTION PRINCIPLE
1. The Workforce Planning Process: Plan what you are looking for…
Workforce planning (Employee Selection) is a systematic process to identify the requirement and meet the organizational goals. It ensures that an organization has the right number of people in the right jobs at the right time. It allows for more effective and efficient use of employees. Many organizations have developed models for Workforce planning. It typically includes five steps:
- Identify the firm’s business strategy
- Articulate the firm’s talent philosophy and strategic staffing decisions
- Conduct workforce analysis
- Develop and implement action plans
- Monitor, evaluate, and revise the forecasts and action plans
2. Simple definition: What is an Ideal Job?
The David Hamill theory is the easiest theory to understand the ideal job. The Venn diagram has three quadrants A, B, C, and the intersection of these quadrants is what we aim to achieve. This seems to be difficult but not impossible.
We must consider the point Ideal job start with factors that influence the job preference as follows:
# Age and Generation: Generation Y (born after the 1980s) is likely to prefer a flexible work schedule. They like the work that allows them to express their creativity. They prefer co-workers who make work more fun. They also need to stay connected through instant messaging, games, and other instant media. They are multitaskers and like to work in a team.
This generation expects immediate recognition and rewards. They expect their company to provide the latest technology for communication, higher pay and meaningful and challenging work. They do not think that they should prove themselves initially by doing lower-level routine tasks.
# Level of Education: College graduates, High school graduates, and those who don’t complete high school; They all have different fields of interest, have different expectations, for example, an engineering student’s job preference is different from a media student’s preference.
# Economic condition: When the economy is down, New employees are likely to be more interested in better pay and secured jobs. They may continue the job even if it is not satisfactory. However, when the economy is high and easy jobs are available, challenging work and growth opportunities may become the preference.
# Discrepancy Between Expectation and reality: Freshers generally have unrealistic job expectations. These unrealistic expectations lead to lower job satisfaction and commitment. Thus, many people leave their first job.
Moving forward, let’s enhance ourselves with difficulties faced by recruits while seeking ideal jobs. There are various processes of Recruitment like Traditional sources & Modern sources. i.e. Online job portals, newspaper advertisement, employment agencies, job fairs, on-campus Recruitment, And apps-based recruitment. While seeking jobs from these sources, one can come across various issues but one major issue that affects job seekers and organizations is the Lack of Realistic Job Preview.
Many Industrial-Organizational psychological studies have shown that globally 33% of employees quit the job in 90 days. Reasons can vary but the most recurring reason that resulted in research is the lack of realistic job preview.
A Realistic Job Preview (RJP) is a technique for providing information about the job to prospective employees, including information about the task context of work. It provides as accurate information as possible about the job. It allows a candidate to experience the real scenario or a film, video, and details about “how it’s gonna be like?”. The purpose is to familiarize prospective (Future) employees with both positive and negative aspects of the job and reduce the expectation about the job.
Research has shown that the use of realistic job preview during the employee selection process has been successful in saving the cost on the employee who joins and quits in 90 days.
The candidate is already aware of the dos and don’ts. The Recruiter can evaluate them better in real scenarios. The picture is clear before joining the organization, hence it increases Job satisfaction, Job performance and saves the cost of hiring the wrong candidate but allowing those who are really interested.
Are you Aware of Fair Employment Practices?? Remember! The ideal job is a Myth until we create one. Hence we must be aware of the Right Practices at our workplace and also at the time of employee selection. It is one of the important principles in the employee selection process that we tend to forget. Let’s read it out…
Organization and Employee must follow the Regulation of Employment and Labour Law. During the process of employee selection generally, we bind ourselves with laws and contracts once we are into the organization. But the ideal job or an organization which takes the regulation of Employment and labour law into consideration at the time of employee selection process and of course after. Though it may be noted that Indian employment and labour law is largely silent as to the process of selection and hiring employees in the private sector. But let me highlight vital ones.
Limitation on the background check – Conducting the background check increases guard against inaccurate resumes, overstated work experience and any employee’s behavioural issues. Conducting the background check is the Employer’s right against the candidate (Employment law overview 2019-20) what matters here is Person’s Consent.
A person should be well aware of the background check, specifying how the employer is going to conduct the background check. It is not necessary under government legislation in India disclosing any personal information about the employee/ prospective employee will require such a person’s consent.
Restriction on Application/Interview questions – Given constitutional safeguards against discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, and place of birth, it is imperative that employers bear these principles in mind while conducting the background check and interviews. Excessive personal questions are restricted. Here the IT rules 2011 and government legislations, both apply at the time of application or collecting information. The employer must inform the concerned person:
i) The fact that his/her personal information is being collected
ii) The purpose for which the information is collected
iii) The intended recipients of the information
Further, the IT Rule for employees and labour under the government legislation state that where any Sensitive Personal Data or Information (SPDI) is sought to be collected such as passwords, financial information, bank accounts or payment instrument details, details of health conditions, sexual orientation, medical records and history.
The above information can be only connected for a lawful purpose related to the function of activity in the company and the collection of this information must be necessary to achieve such purpose. This purpose must be notified to the prospective employee.
EMPLOYEE SELECTION TECHNIQUE
To adapt or use any techniques for employee selection, we must analyze the purpose and uses of job and work. Check the Psychological findings to trigger the understanding.
- To describe the nature and component of the task
- To provide information about the tools and equipment used
- To provide information about the operations performed
- To identify information about the wages paid
- To identify the Training and Education required
- To provide information about the unique aspects of the job
- To establish a training program
- To design job and workplace for better performance
- To uncover safety hazards and dangerous procedures
- To follow equal employment opportunity program successfully
- To justify the qualification demands during the employee selection process
- To fight against the discrimination charges
Different Techniques – We must learn the right ways to conduct the selection process.
It is a two-way process, the employer evaluates the suitability of the applicant and the applicant can check whether the company and job are right for him/her.
Making a good impression – According to Industrial-Organizational Psychological findings, Aamdot M.G(2004), 4th ed the employee selection interview is influenced by the subjective impression of applicants. Perceived attraction, sociability, skill at self-promotion and such personal qualities are some of the factors that influence the hiring decisions. Job Applicants use four impressions management technique:
1. Ingratiation: Applicants praise the interviewer to develop a liking for themselves. For example, you compliment the interviewer’s dress or agree with their viewpoint.
2. Self-promotion: Glorifying self- accomplishments.
3. Self-monitoring: People observe, regulate and control the self-image that they display in public. They present themselves best as per the social climate around them. High self-monitors tend to receive more promotions and higher performance ratings than low self-monitors (Schleicher, Unckless & Hiller, 2002)
4. Lying: 90% of seniors reported that they faked answers in the interviews.
Types of the interview commonly conducted
i) Unstructured interview
ii) Structured interview
iii) Situational interview
iv) Puzzle interview
V) Online interview
i) In an Unstructured Interview, the questions and format are left to the interviewer. Thus, two interviewers may have a different opinion about the same applicant.
- It lacks consistency
- The interviewer may be interested in different information about the applicants
- The recommendation might be based on bias and prejudice
- Predictive validity and reliability are low
In the classic study of 1929, 12 experienced sales managers interviewed and rated 57 applicants. There was a lack of consistency in the rating. Someone who was given the first rank by one interviewer was given the last rank by the other.
The interviewer must be trained in interviewing skills. A trained interviewer is less likely to discuss non-job-related issues. Bring out more valuable information from the job applicants.
ii) In a Structured Interview the set of questions to be asked are decided before and the same questions are asked to all the applicants. The process is standardized and there are fewer chances of the interviewer’s bias. The applicant’s responses are recorded. It provides a much reliable basis for comparison. It is a valid predictor of job success and makes hiring decision easy.
- Developing a structured interview is considered expensive and time-consuming
- It takes away the interviewer’s freedom
- Lack of communication between the interviewer and applications
iii) The Situational Interview is designed to measure specific job behaviours that are required for successful job performance.
Steps in preparing the situational interview
- Prepare a list of critical incidents that differentiate a successful employee from non-successful employees
- The incidents are converted in questions
- Decide the scoring system
Once constructed, it is easy to administer and interpret. It is clear and directly related to job behaviours. It increases the motivation of job applicants to answer accurately and completely. It is more valid than a structured interview, also often used to select skilled and semi-skilled workers.
iv) In the Puzzle Interview, applicants are asked to solve puzzles related to their job profile. It helps in measuring critical thinking, creativity, the flexibility of thoughts and the ability to reason under the pressure of time. Companies like Law firms, Banks, Insurance companies, airlines, advertising agencies and the military use puzzle interviews.
v) Online Interview – Computer software is designed for an online interview. For a particular position, the same MCQ questions are asked in the same sequence to all the applicants. The advantages of an online interview are that the questions on sensitive issues are easy to ask which otherwise creates hesitation in the face-to-face interview.
Most applicants find it comfortable and they respond to it honestly. It saves time. Personal interviews are conducted only after the applicant passes the online interview. Target, Macy’s, Home Depot and other large retail chains routinely use online interviews.
When we use any type of interview technique for employee selection, the Interviewer plays an important role in the process. Hence the ethical way is important for the interviewer to follow. Sometimes interviewer’s personal liking and disliking can influence their judgement. For example, A man who thinks women are incapable of some jobs may evaluate female applicants negatively for the job. A recent study conducted using videotapes found that the police officer interviewing other police personnel for promotion showed racial bias. The chance of reflecting the Halo effect is high.
This is the widely used technique for employee selection. It is also called situational testing. In the Assessment centres:
- 6 to 12 candidates are placed in simulated job situation to evaluate their skills and ability in stressful situations
- A series of experiences are given over a few days
- The exercise is similar to actual job problems
- Applicants are extensively interviewed
- They may also be given psychological tests such as intelligence and personality tests
The most commonly used techniques are in-basket exercise, leaderless group discussion, Oral presentations and RolePlay.
IN-Basket Technique: Here, applicants are provided with a basket similar to the basket or tray or computer file found on the manager’s desk. The basket has similar problems and questions that are generally found in the manager’s tray such as email messages, orders etc. Applicants have to work on it within the given time limit. A trained assessor observes how systematically each applicant has handled the problems, questions and how he/she delegates the authority etc. The applicants are asked to justify their decision.
Leaderless Group discussions: In this technique, applicants form a group and discuss an actual job problem. How they interact and what leadership and communications skills they display is observed. Some stressful situations are also created to see who can work well under pressure. One person takes the leadership role, else tries to put their inputs. According to the performance of their capabilities, they acquire their respective roles.
Oral presentation and Roleplay: Applicants are given the information or some material about the aspect of the jobs. They have to organize and present it to the group. In the Roleplay, the applicants act out the role of the manager in a simulated job situation. The applicant’s behaviour can be videotaped and evaluated later.
The predictive validity of principles and techniques are useful in predicting job success and creates the ethical ”Ideal job, Ideal Workplace” of the entry-level positions, managers and executives.